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Češnjak – Allium sativum

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ČEŠNJAK – Allium sativum

Poznat i pod nazivom bijeli luk, tisućljećima korišten kao univerzalni začin ali i jedan od najčešće korištenih prirodnih lijekova. Pradomovina mu je srednja Azija, a bio je poznat Indijcima, Egipćanima, Grcima i starim Rimljanima. Češnjak je višegodišnja biljka uspravne stabljike i lukovice koja se sastoji od 10-20 malih lučica-češnjeva.

I. Upotrijebljeni dio

Lukovica

II. Aktivni sastojci

  • Eterično ulje (0,25–0,30 %): glavna aktivna tvar je alicin koja je odgovorna za karakterističan oštar miris
  • Ugljikohidrati: do 75% fruktoze
  • Vitamini A, B 1, B 2, B 6, C
  • Mineralne soli: 2 % (željezo, silicij, sumpor)
  • Enzimi: peroksidaze, lizozimi, deoksiribonukleaze i fosfomonoesteraze
  • Adenozin: 0,5 %

III. Farmakološko djelovanje

  • antihelminitik – protiv intestinalnih parazita
  • antioksidans
  • antiarteriosklerotik
  • antiseptički, bakteriostatski, baktericidni i parazicidni učinak
  • antivirusna i fungicidna aktivnost
  • hipoglikemični učinak
  • blagi hipotenzor
  • periferni vazodilatator
  • diuretik

IV. Indikacije

  • paraziti u gastrointestinalnom traktu
  • arterijska hipertenzija
  • prevencija tromboembolije
  • ventrikularna i supraventrikularna aritmija
  • dijabetes
  • bronhitis i astma
  • povišen LDL u plazmi

V. Kontraindikacije

  • preosjetljivost na češnjak, njegove sastojke ili druge slične biljke
  • češnjak se ne preporučuje dojiljama jer sumporni oksidi mogu utjecati na neugodan okus majčinog mlijeka
Viri

Študije:

1.- Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL.”Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol”. Ann Intern Med 119:599-605, 1993.
2.- Jain AK et al. “ Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids ? A controlled clinical study.” Am J Med 94:632-5, 1993.
3.- Rotzch W et al. “Postprandial lipaemia under treatment with Allium sativum. Controlled double blind study in healthy volunteers with reduced HDL2- cholesterol levels” Arzneim Forsch 42(10):1223-7, 1992.
4.- Mader FH. “Treatment of hyperlipidemia with garlic-powder tablets”. Arzneim Forsch 40:1111-6, 1990.
5.-  Ernst  E.  “Cardiovascular  effects  of  garlic”.  Pharmatherapeutica 5(2):83-9, 1987.
6.- Bordia A. “Effect of garlic on blood   lipids in patients with coronary heart disease”. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2100-3, 1981.
7.- Legnani C et al. Effects of dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Arzneims  Forsch 43(1):119-21,1993.
8.-  Kiessewetter  H,  Jung  F,  Pindur  G,  et  al.  “Effect  of  garlic  on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation, and other risk factors”. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 29(4):151-5, 1991.
9.- Sheela CG, Augusti KT. “Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn”. Indian J Exp Biol 30(6):523-6, 1992.
10.- Foushee DB et al. Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: A preliminary report. Cytobios 34:145-52, 1982.
11.- Lamm DL, Riggs DR. “La aplicación potencial de Allium sativum (ajo) para el tratamiento del cáncer de vejiga”.Department of  Urology, Robert C. Byrd Health Science Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA. PMID: 10696254 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
12.- Miron T, Rabinkov A, Mirelman D, Wilchek M, Weiner L.” Modo de actuación de la allicina: su influencia sobre la permeabilidad a través de las membranas fosfolipídicas puede contribuir a su actividad biológica.”Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. PMID: 10631291 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
13.- Martín N, Bardisa L, Pantoja C, Vargas M, Quezada P, Valenzuela J. “Protección antiarrítmica de un dializado de ajo ensayado en perros y en preparaciones atriales aisladas”. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Concepción Chile. PMID: 7967644 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
14.- Potente activación del óxido nítrico sintasa por el ajo: base de sus aplicaciones terapéuticas. Academic Department of Psychiatry, Charing Cross   and   Westminster   Medical   School,   London,   England.PMID:7555034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
15.- Fugh-Berman A. “Interacciones con otras drogas”.George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Health Care Sciences, Washinton, DC 20037, USA. Dentro de los distintos casos de interacciones entre plantas y drogas tenemos las hemorragias debidas al uso combinado de la warfarina con el ajo.PMID: 10675182 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
16.- Dorant E, Van Den Brandt PA et al. “Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical view”. Br.J. Cancer, 67,3:424-9, 1993 Mar.
17.- Gebhardt R, Beck et al. “Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells”. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1213, 1: 57-62, 1994 Jun 23.
18.- Ghannoum MA. “Inhibition of Candida adhesión  to buccal epithelial cells  by  an  aqueous  extract  of  Allium  sativum”.  J.  Appl.  Bacteriol.,68(2):163-9. 1990 Feb.
19.- Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA et al. “In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum extract and compounds”. Planta Médica 58, 5:417-23,1992 Oct.
20.- Tatarintsev AV, Vrzheshch PV et al. « Ajoene antagonizes integrin- dependent  processes  in  HIV-infected  T.lymphoblasts  (letter) ».  AIDS,6,10:11215-7, 1992 Oct.
21.- Pérez HA, De la Rosa M, Apitz R. “ In vivo activity of ajoene against rodent malaria”. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38, 2:337-9, 1994 Feb.
22.- Soffar S A, Mokhtar GM. “Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) in hymenolepiasis nana and giaardiasis”. J. Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 21, 2:497-502, 1991 Aug.
23.- Yeh YY, Yeh SM. “Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesteroland triiacylglicerol synthesis”. Lipids, 29,3:189-93, 1994 Mar.
24.- Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT et al. “ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study”. J Natl Cancer Inst.2002 Nov 6;94(21):1648-51.

Bibliografija

1.- Real Farmacopea Española. 2ª Edición 2002.
2.- The Complete German Commission E Monographs.Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Blumenthal. Busse, Goldberg, Gruenwald, Hall, etc.
3.- Botanical Influences on Illness. A sourcebook of clinical research. Melvyn R. Werbach, M.D. & Michael T. Murray, N.D. Third Line Press.
4.- Jean Bruneton. Farmacognosia. Fitoquímica Plantas Medicinales.  2ª Edición. 2001. Ed Acribia. S.A.
5.-  Plantas  Medicinales  y  Drogas  Vegetales  para  infusión  y  tisana. Edición  Española a  cargo  de:  Salvador Cañigueral, Roser  Vila,  Max Wichtl. 1998.
6.- Fitoterapia aplicada. J.B. Peris; G. Stübing; B. Vanaclocha. 1ª Edición. Colegio Oficial de Farmacéuticos de Valencia.
7.- Elementos de Fitoquímica y de Farmacognósia. Jean Bruneton.  Ed Acribia. S.A.
8.- Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. Jean Bruneton. Lavoisier Publishing.
9.- Fitoterapía. Vademecum de Prescripción.   Plantas Medicinales. Aasociación Española de Médicos Naturistas. Colegio   Oficial de Farmacéuticos de Vizcaya.

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